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How Earthquakes Affect Buildings

Updated: Dec 21, 2023


photograph of falling buildings after an earthquake

Earthquakes are natural disasters that occur when two plates of the earth's crust suddenly shift and release energy. They can also be caused by human activity (referred to as 'Induced Earthquakes'). This sudden release of energy creates seismic waves that cause the ground to shake violently, resulting in damage to buildings, infrastructure and human lives. In this article, we will discuss how earthquakes affect buildings and what factors contribute to their vulnerability.


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How Do Earthquakes Affect Buildings?


Earthquakes can cause a variety of damages to buildings, including:


  1. Ground Shaking: The primary cause of building damage during earthquakes is ground shaking. As seismic waves travel through the ground, they can cause the building to sway and vibrate, putting stress on its structure.

  2. Liquefaction: In areas with loose soil or sand, earthquakes can cause liquefaction, where the soil loses its strength and turns into a liquid-like state. This phenomenon can result in buildings sinking or tilting when liquefaction occurs beneath them.

  3. Tsunamis: In coastal areas, earthquakes can trigger tsunamis that can cause significant damage to buildings near the shore.

  4. Landslides: Strong earthquakes can also trigger landslides, which can destroy buildings located on hills or mountains.

  5. Fires and Explosions: Earthquakes can damage gas lines, electrical lines, and other utility systems, which can lead to fires and explosions that can cause further damage to buildings.



What Buildings are Most Affected by Earthquakes?


There are a few factors that affect the potential level of damage that can occur to buildings during earthquakes. These include:


  • Building Design: The design and construction of a building play a crucial role in determining its ability to withstand seismic activity. Buildings that are built with poor foundations, weak materials or improper structural systems are more susceptible to damage during earthquakes.

  • Location: The location of a building is also a critical factor. Buildings built on soft soils or near fault lines are more vulnerable to damage as these areas experience more ground shaking.

  • Age of the Building: Older buildings that were constructed before modern building codes and standards were established are at a higher risk of damage during an earthquake. These buildings may not have been designed to withstand seismic activity, making them more vulnerable.

  • Maintenance: Proper maintenance of buildings is essential for their structural integrity. Buildings that are not regularly inspected and maintained are more likely to suffer damage during an earthquake.

  • Soil type: The soil type beneath a building plays an important role in determining the amount of damage a property sustains during an earthquake. For example, softer and thicker soils amplify the shaking produced by an earthquake. As a result, building damage tends to be greater in areas with soft soils.



How Strong Does an Earthquake Have to be to Destroy Buildings?


There is not one magnitude above which property damage can occur from an earthquake because there are other variables that play a role in the level of damage that an earthquake can cause. However, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), damage does not usually occur until the earthquake magnitude reaches somewhere above a 4 or 5.



Is it Possible to Mitigate the Effects of Earthquakes on Buildings?


While earthquakes cannot be prevented, there are measures that can be taken to minimize their impact on buildings. These include:


  • Building Codes: Most countries have building codes and standards in place for earthquake-resistant design and construction. These codes specify the minimum requirements for structural integrity, foundation strength and materials used in buildings.

  • Seismic Retrofitting: For older buildings that were not constructed with seismic activity in mind, seismic retrofitting can be done to improve their resistance to earthquakes. This process involves strengthening weak points and adding support systems to the building's structure.

  • Regular Maintenance: As mentioned earlier, regular maintenance is crucial for ensuring the structural integrity of buildings. Regular inspections, repairs and upgrades can help reduce the risk of damage during an earthquake.

  • Education and Awareness: Educating people about earthquake safety measures, such as drop, cover, and hold on, can also help mitigate the effects of earthquakes on buildings. This includes training for emergency preparedness and evacuation plans.

Earthquakes can have devastating effects on buildings. However, with proper building design, location considerations, maintenance, and awareness measures in place, the impact of earthquakes on buildings can be reduced significantly. It is essential to prioritize earthquake-resistant construction and take necessary precautions to ensure the safety of buildings and their occupants during seismic activity.


LandGate provides property value estimates and data to help you evaluate potential damage due to natural disasters in our free property reports. Get a free property report on our map today:






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