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What is Micro Farming?

Updated: Jun 3

photograph of planters with small green plants growing in a greenhouse with text overlay 'what is micro farming?'

Farms and ranches often evoke images of vast lands, red barns, and bustling farmers. However, not all farms require extensive space, equipment, or remote locations. Many farms today operate efficiently on smaller scales, showcasing the diversity and adaptability of modern agriculture.

A micro-farm also referred to as an urban farm, refers to an agricultural property that operates on five acres of land or less, but the exact acreage is not as important as the principles of efficiency, sustainability, and productivity. They are common in urban and suburban areas. The overall focus is on sustainability and a commitment to being eco-friendly through the usage of intensive planting methods, crop rotation, companion planting, and more. Overall, micro-farming is based on maximizing productivity using a limited amount of space.

Micro farms typically start as small gardens but can evolve into specialized operations focusing on niche crops that do not need to be produced in large quantities, such as tomatoes, lettuce, garlic, herbs, and micro greens.

What are the benefits of micro-farming?

Micro-farming is experiencing a comeback as urban dwellers embrace healthier and greener lifestyles. With just a small space and a passion for sustainability, anyone can participate in this movement towards a greener future.

Low Up-Front Costs & Reduced Labor

When it comes to micro-farming compared to other types of farming, micro-farming is extremely low-cost, and it doesn't require a large meaningful investment. Compared to farms that span many acres, a micro-farm requires a much smaller investment in labor. You don’t need to invest in heavy machinery or workers to help maintain the crops. Micro farms offer flexibility and customization, allowing you to create a space that suits your preferences. With their manageable size, they enable efficient use of space and resources, enabling significant growth in a small area.

Access to high-quality food

One of the most significant benefits of having a micro-farm is having control over what you grow and how you grow it. If eating organically and living a healthy lifestyle is important to you, growing your own food is a rewarding experience and one of the best ways to ensure that everything you consume is free of harmful chemicals such as pesticides. By cultivating even just one or two specialty crops, you are not only providing yourself with fresh and nutritious produce but also safeguarding yourself against the potential hazards of consuming food that may be treated with harmful substances.

Saves money

Starting your own micro-farm can vary in cost depending on the size of the land and the animals or crops you plan to have. However, it provides a cost- and time-effective way to obtain healthy foods, saving money from buying organic produce and reducing the time and carbon emissions associated with trips to the store.

Contribute to land preservation

Microfarmers can be very effective stewards of natural resources and the soil because the basis of micro-farming is sustainability and productivity. By preserving biodiversity, and by reducing land degradation, small farms provide valuable ecosystem services to the larger society.

Productively use small properties

Micro farmers, who practice the art of intercropping, utilize crop mixtures to maximize the use of niche space that would otherwise be overrun by weeds. By strategically planting various crops together, microfarmers create a harmonious ecosystem where each plant complements and supports the growth of others. This interplay of crops not only helps to control weed growth but also enhances soil fertility and biodiversity. As a result, micro-farms often achieve significantly higher output per unit area compared to larger farming and ranching operations. This sustainable and efficient farming approach not only ensures a bountiful harvest but also contributes to the preservation of the environment.

Generate Income

Many micro-farmers choose to sell some of their produce to friends and family, or in farmer's markets. This generates extra income for the farmer and also allows them to educate others on sustainable farming practices. Additionally, micro-farms can provide a steady stream of income through Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) programs, where individuals or families pay upfront for a share of the farm's produce throughout the season.

What are the challenges of micro-farming?

Soil Health Considerations

Maintaining the health of the soil and being aware of the soil types is essential for micro-farming, especially given the size of the plots. Over time, the soil can become depleted of essential nutrients, making it challenging to grow healthy and productive crops. Microfarmers must carefully monitor the soil health and implement sustainable practices such as crop rotation, composting, and cover cropping to replenish the soil's nutrients.

Limited Space

One of the most significant challenges of micro-farming is limited space. Aspiring urban micro farmers may struggle to find land in densely-populated, highly-developed cities. Additionally, local zoning laws may restrict the types of produce and animals that can be grown on a micro-farm.

Similarly, the limited space involved with microfarming means that most tasks need to be done manually or with smaller-scale tools, which can be time-consuming.


Micro-farming requires fewer paid laborers than traditional farms, but manual work is more intense for individual farmers. Weeding is especially challenging. Some micro farmers opt for vertical growing techniques and hydroponics to reduce the manual labor involved in maintaining their crops.

Pest Control

Pests can be a significant challenge for any type of farming, but with limited space, it becomes even more crucial to prevent infestations. Controlling pests without harmful chemicals is essential for micro farming because small spaces can quickly become overwhelmed if pests are not monitored and managed regularly.

Weather Dependence

Microfarming is heavily reliant on weather conditions, as a small plot of land can be significantly affected by factors like temperature, sunlight, and precipitation. This makes it important for micro farmers to monitor weather patterns and adapt their farming practices accordingly closely. Crops grown on micro-farms are more susceptible to damage due to their small size.

There are many benefits to micro farming, and it is one way that property owners can productively use smaller properties. Ultimately, the micro-farming experience can be more satisfying for the farmers involved as it allows the people involved to feel more closely connected with the land. Additionally, micro-farms in low-income urban areas have the potential to keep food economy dollars in local communities, beautify the cityscape, increase communities’ ability to respond to crises and increase access to healthy food.

There are many other ways to make money from your land while contributing to preserving the environment, such as leasing land for a solar farm or a wind farm. Properties as small as 5 acres can qualify for community solar farms, allowing the property owner to generate income through solar lease payments.

LandGate provides property owners with free property reports detailing valuable information about land's agricultural value and energy leasing potential. Get your free property report on our map today:


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