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Environmental Risks in Real Estate


aerial photograph of commercial real estate development with text overlay 'Environmental Risks in Real Estate'

Environmental risks refer to various hazards that can negatively affect the value, usability, or physical condition of a property. These risks encompass a broad spectrum of issues, from natural disasters, which include floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and wildfires, to man-made problems such as pollution, contamination from hazardous waste, and the presence of asbestos or lead-based paint.


In recent years, there has been a growing recognition within the real estate industry of the significance of these environmental risks. Industry professionals now acknowledge that these factors can have substantial impacts, not only on the immediate physical state of a property but also on its long-term investment value. As a result, assessments of environmental risks have become a crucial part of the property evaluation process, with both buyers and sellers becoming increasingly diligent in identifying and mitigating potential environmental hazards before completing a transaction.


The Importance of Considering Environmental Risks

There are several reasons why it is important for those involved in the real estate industry to consider environmental risks.


  • Financial Implications: Environmental risks can have a significant financial impact on a property. For example, if a property is located in an area prone to flooding, insurance premiums may be higher. In extreme cases, the cost of remediation and clean-up can be substantial and may even render the property unusable.

  • Legal Implications: Property owners have a legal responsibility to ensure that their properties are safe and do not pose a risk to human health or the environment. Failure to address environmental risks can result in legal action and financial penalties.

  • Reputation and Public Perception: In today's society, there is growing concern about the environment and sustainability. Potential tenants, investors, and stakeholders may view a property with environmental risks as undesirable or even harmful, which can have a negative impact on the overall reputation and perception of the property.

  • Regulatory Compliance: There are various environmental regulations in place that commercial real estate owners must comply with. Failure to comply with these regulations can result in fines and legal action.



Types of Environmental Risks in Real Estate

There are several types of environmental risks that can affect a property and its condition. Some common environmental risks include:


  • Air and Water Pollution: This can be caused by nearby industrial activities, chemical spills, or improper waste disposal.

  • Natural disasters: Properties located in areas prone to natural disasters like floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes are at a higher risk of damage and disruption. Droughts impact real estate as well- they can lower property values and slowly cause damage to the foundation of buildings.

  • Climate change: The effects of climate change, such as rising sea levels and extreme weather events, can have a significant impact on coastal properties and properties located in areas susceptible to wildfires. Moreover, the heightened energy requirements during the summer months pose a risk to the energy grid, potentially resulting in blackouts or brownouts in specific regions. This situation could prove troublesome for industries that heavily depend on constant and abundant energy supply around the clock, such as data centers, warehouses, and pharmaceutical storage facilities.

  • Preservation: Real estate development often clashes with state and local environmental preservation efforts. Developers must take into account the presence of floodplains, wetlands, conservation areas, and wildlife when undergoing a development project.

  • Land and Water Contamination: Property contamination can originate on the site or from the activities from the current or previous owners, or from off-site sources. For instance, a property located in an area where oil & gas development is prevalent can become contaminated with oil and gas wastes and byproducts in the water and soil sources.


LandApp provides the location of Superfund sites, contaminated sites, abandoned wells, and underground tanks across the U.S. for just $10 per month. Easily assess any property's potential contamination risk using LandApp's contamination data and risk indexes:


Screenshot of LandGate's risk indexes


How to Mitigate Environmental Risks

While it is impossible to completely lessen all environmental risks, there are measures that can be taken to mitigate their impact. These include:


  • Due Diligence: Before purchasing or developing a property, conducting thorough research and due diligence is crucial. This may involve hiring environmental experts and conducting site assessments to identify any potential risks.

  • Insurance: Property owners can protect themselves from financial losses by obtaining appropriate insurance coverage for environmental risks.

  • Remediation and Clean-up: If a property has been contaminated, it is important to take prompt action to remediate and clean up the site. This may involve working with environmental consultants and regulatory agencies.

  • Compliance: Staying up-to-date with environmental regulations and complying with them is crucial in mitigating risks and avoiding legal issues.


By conducting detailed site evaluations and in-depth analyses, specialists are able to identify potential dangers, including soil contamination, groundwater pollution, asbestos presence, and the existence of hazardous substances. Gaining an early understanding of these risks enables developers to make well-informed choices and apply suitable risk reduction measures.


How to Assess a Property's Environmental Risks

It is essential for the real estate industry to consider environmental risks when purchasing, developing, or managing a property. Failure to do so can have significant financial and legal implications. By conducting due diligence, obtaining insurance, and implementing sustainable practices, investors and buyers can mitigate these risks and contribute to a more environmentally responsible future. 


To assess a property's environmental risks, get a free property report on LandGate's map, or subscribe to LandApp for unlimited property reports for any U.S. property to help you conduct due diligence:



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