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Solar Panel Components

zoomed in photograph of solar panel repairs

Solar panels, also known as PV (photovoltaic) panels, are devices that collect sunlight and convert this sunlight into electricity. They are an increasingly popular and affordable source of renewable energy that continues to grow in relevance throughout the United States. Solar panels are composed of several critical components that work together to efficiently convert solar energy into usable clean power. In this guide, we will discuss the 6 main components of a solar panel and their functions.


1. Photovoltaic Cells

The key component of a solar panel is the photovoltaic (PV) cell, also referred to as solar cells. These cells are made up of semiconductor materials, such as silicon, which can convert sunlight into electricity. When sunlight hits the PV cell, it knocks electrons loose from the atoms in the semiconductor material, causing them to flow through the cell and create an electrical current. The more light that hits the cell, the more electricity is produced.


PV cells come in different shapes and sizes, depending on their intended use. Some are rectangular, while others are square or circular. The most common type of PV cell is made from silicon, but there are also other materials used for specialized applications.


2. Glass Cover

The next component of a solar panel is the glass cover. This layer serves multiple purposes. Firstly, it protects the PV cells from external elements such as rain, snow, and hail. Additionally, the glass cover allows sunlight to pass through, maximizing the amount of light that reaches the PV cells. The type of glass used for solar panels is specially designed to be durable and transparent. Solar glass is typically 3mm to 4mm thick.


3. Encapsulant

Located between the PV cells and the back sheet is a layer called the encapsulant. This component serves as an adhesive, holding together all of the components of a solar panel. It also protects the PV cells from moisture and other external factors that may cause damage. EVA film (ethylene vinyl acetate) is typically used for encapsulating solar cells.


4. Back sheet

The back sheet is a thin layer of material that covers the back of the solar panel. Its primary function is to protect the inner components from moisture and other environmental factors. The most common materials used for backsheets are Tedlar or TPT, which are both durable and weather-resistant.


5. Aluminum Frame

To provide structural support and protect the inner components, solar panels are housed within a frame. The frame is typically made from aluminum or steel and provides rigidity to the panel. It also serves as a mounting point for installation on rooftops or other structures.


6. Junction Box

The last component of a solar panel is the junction box, which is located at the back of the panel. It serves as a connection point for all of the wiring and cables inside the solar panel, allowing for easy access to connect multiple panels in a solar array. The junction box also contains diodes, which prevent reverse current flow and protect against potential electrical hazards.


As you can see, each component of a solar panel plays an essential role in its functionality. Understanding these components can help you make informed decisions when installing solar panels for your home or business. With the continued advancements in technology, solar panels are becoming more efficient and affordable, making them a viable option for generating clean energy and reducing reliance on traditional sources of electricity.


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